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The process by which the grape solids (skin, seeds) are left to soak in the must in order to extract the desired components, such as tannins, aromas and pigments.

A vinification method used mostly to produce certain vins nouveau (new wines). The release of aromas is facilitated by allowing whole grapes to macerate in an anaerobic environment. Enzymes in the grape then began the process of sugar fermentation, which is continued in the normal fashion by yeast in the presence of oxygen.

A pre-fermentation phase that consists of letting the grapes macerate away from air and at a low temperature in order to activate aromatic precursors. This phase is followed by the typical fermentation phase with yeast in the presence of oxygen to transform sugar into alcohol.

Describes wine that has aged for too long and has acquired a Madeira-like taste and amber colour. A Maderised wine is far past its peak and is considered at the end of its life.

A bottle that contains one and a half litres, or the equivalent of two bottles of 750 mL.

Sometimes called Cot, this a red grape variety found throughout Bordeaux that likes warm terroirs. It produces dark wines with predominant notes of violet and plum with a strong tannic structure.

Malic Acid
Malic acid that occurs naturally in many wines that is transformed into lactic acid during malolactic fermentation.

The grape solids that are pressed at the end of alcoholic fermentation to produce press wine. Press wine is richer but less balanced than free-run wine and is used for blending.

Describes wine, usually aged, in which the different characteristics have blended together resulting in a harmonious, very well balanced whole.

A disease caused by a parasite fungus that attacks the green parts of the grapevine, especially the leaves.

A white Bordeaux grape variety that produced very perfumed wines with notes of orange juice and musk.

Describes an odour similar to musk. In Bordeaux, this note is often found in wines made with the Muscadelle grape variety and in the bouquet of red wine that has aged in the bottle.

Grape juice before fermentation has been completed.

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