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Describes wine's astringency caused by the level of tannins it contains.

Occurring naturally in grapes, this substance gives wine its structure, potential for ageing and astringency. Tannins combine with pigments (anthocyans) in red wine, and are also anti-oxidants that play a proven role in the prevention of certain cardio-vascular diseases when consumed in moderation ("French Paradox").

Tartrate crystals
Often found on the cork or at the bottom of bottles these crystals are often mistook for residual sugar. These white crystals do not affect in anyway the flavour or quality of wine.

Crystallised particles of tartaric acid sometimes found in bottles of wine. They have no negative impact on wine, and are caused by exposure to cold temperatures. This crystallisation can be prevented by a treatment prior to bottling done by an Oenologist.

Tactile sensation (sweet, salty, acidic or bitter) produced in the mouth by food.

Terroir (flavour of)
An aromatic expression related to soil composition that results in specific characteristics in wine that are typical from the terroir where it is made. For example, the note of violets in Pomerol.

A technique to control and optimize the temperature in the vats during fermentation that revolutionised winemaking, given the impact of temperature on yeast metabolism. The ideal temperatures for alcoholic fermentation are: 18°C for whites and from 28-30°C for reds.

Describes richly pigmented wine that is heavy and full in the mouth.

Describes an unbalanced wine with few tannins and no body.

Describes wines that has been destabilised by a treatment such as filtering or transport. It becomes difficult to judge its quality until it has had time to recover.

In Bordeaux, this measure equals four barrels of 225 litres, or 900 litres. This is the unit of volume for bulk wine sales, used when négociants purchase wines from producer via brokers.

The process of pruning the tip of the grapevines in the summer to limit foliage growth and encourage the accumulation of sugar, tannins and acid in the grapes to maximize their quality.

Topping up
Procedure that consists of refilling barrels or vats during elevage of wines in order to avoid possible oxidisation.

Describes wine that no longer has its young colour (ruby, crimson, garnet) with orange reflections due to premature ageing. Generally a wine at its peak will also have these reflections. 

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